Marijuana (Pot, Cannabis, THC) Effects and toxicity in dogs

Marijuana (Pot, Cannabis, THC) Effects and toxicity in dogs

Review of Cannabis Effect and Toxicity in Dogs

The recent legalization of marijuana for treating people has increased the effects of marijuana (pot) and its toxicity to dogs. In fact, according to the animal helpline hotline, the number of visits to veterinarians and calls to animal hotlines was poisoned by marijuana exposure and toxicity.

Marijuana, also known as “pot,” is a psychoactive drug obtained from a cannabis plant that has been around for hundreds of years. The term marijuana most often refers to a tobacco product made from cannabis leaves. There are two widely discussed cannabis plant species, Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Cannabis is used for both recreational and medical purposes.

The cannabis plant has about 483 known compounds and more than 80 cannabinoids, with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being the most potent and psychogenic. The amount and concentration of each cannabinoid varies according to different plants and plant spots.

THC is present in the leaves and flowering tops of the cannabis plant. Hashish, another product containing THC, is a resin extracted from a plant. The second most widely known cannabinoid is cannabidiol, commonly referred to as “CBD”. The difference between THC and CBD is that THC causes psychotropic effects (affect thinking), while CBD has limited toxicity and is not psychotropic.

The cannabis plant is also known as hemp, but more often refers to strains with less psychogenic properties due to the minimum level of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In humans, THC is sometimes used to relieve nausea associated with chemotherapy, help with muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis, to treat convulsive disorders, and much more.

Learn more about the medical use and possible toxicity of CBD oil for dogs here.

Unfortunately, due to the illegal nature of these drugs and concerns about social stigma, diagnosis and treatment are sometimes postponed. This raises the question – what does your vet do if you introduce a dog with illegal exposure to drugs?

How does marijuana affect dogs?

Dogs are usually exposed to marijuana when they consume cigarettes, dried leaves, or pastries containing marijuana. There are also reports of passive smoking that causes intoxication. Sometimes owners may intentionally give marijuana to their pets in order to “see what is happening.”

With legalization, there are many varieties of marijuana, as well as many forms. Cannabis can be consumed by eating a variety of foods, including candy, chewing candy, suckers, pastries, oils, and when smoking or evaporating.

When inhaled or ingested, THC is ingested and binds to neuroreceptors in the brain, including norepinephrine, serotonin dopamine, and / or acetylcholine. This binding alters the normal function of the neurotransmitter.

Signs of Cannabis Toxicity in Dogs

The most common side effects of cannabis toxicity in dogs are depression, lethargy, lethargy, loss of motor coordination or balance (stumbling), incontinence, low heartbeat, low blood pressure, respiratory depression, pupil dilation and glazing, vocalization such as crying or whining, excitement, drooling, vomiting, convulsions and coma. Some dogs may experience hallucinations and sensitivity to noise or quick movements.

A stereotypical dog that is presented to a veterinary clinic for possible exposure to marijuana is lethargic, lethargic, stumbling, glazed in front of the eyes and may drip urine.

One danger with marijuana is that vomiting is common, and if a dog has deep lethargy and begins to vomit, aspiration of vomiting into the lungs can lead to serious breathing problems and even death. This is relatively rare.

Symptoms of exposure can begin as quickly as from 5 minutes to 12 hours after exposure. Symptoms can last from half an hour to several days, depending on the amount and type of ingested.

Cannabis toxicity in dogs: how toxic is marijuana?

THC is easily stored in the body’s fatty tissue, including the liver, brain, and kidneys. The liver metabolizes it, and most of it is excreted in the feces and urine.

The good news is that marijuana exposure or taking is rarely fatal, and long-term complications are rare. The toxicity of marijuana is low. In order to be fatal, it takes about 1.5 grams of marijuana per pound of body weight. Therefore, death from the use of marijuana is not common.

The most serious problems associated with exposure to marijuana or swallowing it in dogs are associated with high concentrations of medical-grade THC.

Diagnosis of cannabis toxicity in dogs

The diagnosis of ingestion or exposure to marijuana in dogs is often based on physical examination results and a history of exposure. There are urine tests to determine the presence of THC. Human tests can be used, but are not reliable on dogs.

Cannabis treatment for dogs

There is no antidote against marijuana. This means that treatment of exposure to marijuana usually involves trying to eliminate the drug in their system, eliminate secondary symptoms, and provide support until the drug is removed from their systems.

Heart Arrhythmia at Dogs

Heart Arrhythmia in Dogs - PetPlace

Review of cardiac arrhythmias in dogs

Cardiac arrhythmia is a violation of the heart rhythm in dogs. These disorders are classified based on the area of the heart in which they occur. They originate either from the upper parts of the heart, the lower parts of the heart, the region of the heart responsible for the heartbeat, or from the electrical conductivity system in the heart.

Each heartbeat arises as an electrical impulse in the upper right heart chamber (sinoatrial [SA] node). Then the impulse passes through the upper chambers of the heart (atrium) to the intermediate station (atrioventricular [AV] node), and, finally, in the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). An electrical impulse generates a typical pattern observed on an electrocardiogram (ECG or ECG). Disruption in the generation or transmission of an electrical impulse to the heart causes cardiac arrhythmia. Some cardiac arrhythmias are temporary and do not cause disease. Others are serious and can be life-threatening.

Heart rhythm disorders can affect dogs of any age or gender. They can also affect any breed, but there are some breeds that are more at risk for developing arrhythmias than others. Giant dog breeds are more prone to the type of arrhythmia, known as atrial fibrillation, which is a rapid abnormal heartbeat that occurs in the atria. Labrador retrievers tend to supraventricular tachycardia, which is a rapid heartbeat that occurs directly above the ventricles. Pinchers and Doberman boxers are prone to ventricular tachycardia, which is a rapid abnormal heartbeat that occurs in the ventricles. Sinus node weakness syndrome is an anomaly that affects the SA node: it is most common in miniature schnauzers, dachshunds, cocker spaniels and West Highland White Terriers. Spaniels, German Shepherds and Labrador Retrievers are prone to certain types of heart block.

The prognosis (prognosis) for animals with cardiac arrhythmia depends on the type of arrhythmia, the main cause of the arrhythmia, as well as the type and extent of any existing heart disease. In dogs with congestive heart failure, the prognosis is poor.

What to watch

  • Weakness
  • collapse
  • Slow heart rate
  • Fast heart rate
  • Unstable Heart Rate
  • Labored breathing
  • Lack of appetite

Diagnosis of heart arrhythmias in dogs

A blood test, including a complete blood test and biochemical profile, should be performed to detect any major abnormalities. Some dogs may be anemic, have an increased number of white blood cells, or have organ dysfunction. Some diseases, such as hypothyroidism, can cause heart arrhythmias.

Cardiac arrhythmias are diagnosed using an electrocardiogram (ECG, ECG). The type of arrhythmia can be diagnosed using an ECG oscilloscope or a trace printout.

A chest x-ray (radiography) can help determine the presence of heart failure or heart failure.

An ultrasound of the heart (echocardiogram) is sometimes performed to determine the assessment of cardiac function and to detect any underlying heart disease.

Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in dogs

Treatment depends on the severity of the arrhythmia and the presence of any underlying disease. There are various cardiac arrhythmias, and each is managed differently. Some of them are serious and require treatment or even electric shock treatment. Others are harmless and require no treatment at all.

In addition to treating cardiac arrhythmias, any underlying heart disease or other disease should also be considered.

Home Care and Prevention

There is no home care for a heart rhythm disorder, except that you must take any medications that your vet prescribes. If you suspect your dog has an abnormal heart rhythm or rhythm, you should immediately contact your veterinarian.

Cardiac arrhythmias are difficult to prevent, but early diagnosis and treatment of predisposing causes may reduce the risk of arrhythmias.

Detailed information about canine arrhythmias

Normal heart rhythms begin in the sinoatrial (SA or sinus) node, which is located in the right upper chamber (atrium) of the heart. While sinus abnormalities are usually caused by a systemic disorder, such as hypo or hyperthyroidism, primary sinus disease is common and can lead to a type of arrhythmia known as sinus syndrome. Other arrhythmias may occur that occur outside the SA node. One of the most serious of these is atrial fibrillation. Ventricular arrhythmias include premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardia. More serious arrhythmias sometimes lead to cardiac decompensation and acute or chronic heart failure. Some arrhythmias are exacerbated before fibrillation and, ultimately, without any heartbeat (asystole).

A cardiac arrhythmia can lead to a very slow heartbeat (potentially just as slow at 40 beats per minute), called bradycardia; very fast heartbeat (potentially more than 200 beats per minute in a dog), called tachycardia; or irregular heartbeat. Different types of arrhythmias can occur. Here are some of the most common:

  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Atrial tachycardia
  • Ventricular escape rhythm
  • Ventricular premature complex
  • Ventricular tachycardia
  • Ventricular fibrillation
  • First degree heart block
  • Second degree heart block
  • Third degree heart block

Often, cardiac arrhythmias are associated with underlying heart disease, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, or congenital heart defects. In addition, various other diseases or events can cause heart rhythm disorders, including:

  • Hypothyroidism (with active thyroid)
  • Chronic lung disease
  • anemia
  • Overdose of certain medications such as digoxin, drugs, xylazine
  • Introduction of anesthetics
  • High or low blood potassium levels
  • Heart tumors
  • injury
  • Toxicity such as chocolate poisoning
  • Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s Disease – Adrenal Disease)
  • Urinary Obstruction
  • Lyme disease
  • Inhalation of smoke
  • Head injury
  • hypothermia
  • Fear
  • excitement
  • pain
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Gastric dilated volvul
  • Spleen diseases
  • Severe infections

Deep diagnosis

Cardiac arrhythmias are often detected during physical examination. Your vet will listen to your dog’s heart with a stethoscope to determine if his heart rate is too slow, too fast, or unstable. If an arrhythmia is detected or suspected, this is confirmed by an electrocardiogram (ECG, ECG). Your dog will be located on the right side, and clamps or gaskets will be attached to its arms and legs. This procedure is painless. Then the ECG is turned on and the electrical activity of the heart is monitored. Tracing is checked to determine heart rate and rhythm.